Trends and Outcomes of Liver Transplantation Among Older Recipients in the United States
BACKGROUND: The average age of recipients and donors of liver transplantation (LT) is increasing. Although there has been a change in the indications for LT over the years, data regarding the trends and outcomes of LT in the older population is limited. AIM: To assess the clinical characteristics, age-related trends, and outcomes of LT among the older population in the United States. METHODS: We analyzed data from the United Network for Organ Sharing database between 1987-2019. The sample was split into younger group (18-64 years old) and older group (≥ 65 years old). RESULTS: Between 1987-2019, 155758 LT were performed in the United States. During this period there was a rise in median age of the recipients and percentage of LT recipients who were older than 65 years increased ( < 0.05) with the highest incidence of LT among older population seen in 2019 (1920, 23%). Common primary etiologies of liver disease leading to LT in older patients when compared to the younger group, were non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (16.4% 5.9%), hepatocellular carcinoma (14.9% 6.9%), acute liver failure (2.5% 5.2%), hepatitis C cirrhosis (HCV) (19.2 % 25.6%) and acute alcoholic hepatitis (0.13% 0.35%). In older recipient group female sex and Asian race were higher, while model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score and rates of preoperative mechanical ventilation were lower ( < 0.01). Median age of donor, female sex, body mass index (BMI), donor HCV positive status, and donor risk index (DRI) were significantly higher in older group ( < 0.01). In univariable analysis, there was no difference in post-transplant length of hospitalization, one-year, three-year and five-year graft survivals between the two groups. In multivariable Cox-Hazard regression analysis, older group had an increased risk of graft failure during the five-year post-transplant period (hazard ratio: 1.27, < 0.001). Other risk factors for graft failure among recipients were male sex, African American race, re-transplantation, presence of diabetes, mechanical ventilation at the time of LT, higher MELD score, presence of portal vein thrombosis, HCV positive status, and higher DRI. CONCLUSION: While there is a higher risk of graft failure in older recipient population, age alone should not be a contraindication for LT. Careful selection of donors and recipients along with optimal management of risk factors during the postoperative period are necessary to maximize the transplant outcomes in this population.
Okumura, K., Lee, J. S., Dhand, A., Sogawa, H., Veillette, G., John, D., Misawa, R., Bodin, R., Wolf, D. C., Diflo, T., & Nishida, S. (2022). Trends and Outcomes of Liver Transplantation Among Older Recipients in the United States. https://doi.org/10.5500/wjt.v12.i8.259