NYMC Faculty Publications

Gender Differences in Genotypic Distribution of Endothelin-1 Gene and Endothelin Receptor a Gene in Pulmonary Hypertension Associated With Rheumatic Mitral Valve Disease

Author Type(s)


Journal Title

Indian Heart Journal

First Page


Last Page


Document Type


Publication Date





INTRODUCTION: The female gender is a risk factor for idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension. However, it is unknown whether females with rheumatic mitral valve disease are more predisposed to develop pulmonary hypertension compared to males. AIM: We aimed to investigate whether there was a difference in genotypic distribution of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and endothelin receptor A (ET) genes between female and male patients of pulmonary hypertension associated with rheumatic mitral valve disease (PH-MVD). METHODS: We compared prevalence of ET-1 gene (Lys198Asn) and ET gene (His323His) polymorphisms according to gender in 123 PH-MVD subjects and 123 healthy controls. RESULTS: The presence of mutant Asn/Asn and either mutant Asn/Asn or heterozygous Lys/Asn genotypes of Lys198Asn polymorphism when compared to Lys/Lys in females showed significant association with higher risk (odds ratio [OR] 4.5; p =0.007 and OR 2.39; p =0.02, respectively). The presence of heterozygous C/T and either mutant T/T or heterozygous C/T genotypes of His323His polymorphism when compared to wild C/C genotype in females showed a significant association with higher risk (OR 1.96; p =0.047 and OR 2.26; p =0.01, respectively). No significant difference was seen in genotypic frequencies in males between PH-MVD subjects and controls. Logistic regression analysis showed that mutant genotype Asn/Asn (p =0.007) and heterozygous genotype Lys/Asn of Lys198Asn polymorphism (p =0.018) were independent predictors of development of PH in females. CONCLUSIONS: ET-1 and ET gene polymorphisms were more prevalent in females than males in PH-MVD signifying that females with rheumatic heart disease may be more susceptible to develop PH.