NYMC Faculty Publications

Robotic-Assisted Surgery Training (RAST) Program: Module 1 of a Three-Module Program. Assessment of Patient Cart Docking Skills and Educational Environment

Author Type(s)


Journal Title

Updates in Surgery

First Page


Last Page


Document Type


Publication Date





There is currently no standardized robotic surgery training program in General Surgery Residency. RAST involves three modules: ergonomics, psychomotor, and procedural. This study aimed to report the results of module 1, which assessed the responsiveness of 27 PGY (postgraduate year) 1-5 general surgery Resident/Fellows (GSRs) to simulated patient cart docking, and to evaluate the Resident/Fellows' perception of the educational environment from 2021 to 2022. GSRs prepared with pre-training educational video and multiple-choice questions test (MCQs). Faculty provided one-on-one Resident/Fellow hands-on training and testing. Nine proficiency criteria (deploy cart; boom control; driving cart; docking camera port; targeting anatomy; flex joints; clearance joints; port nozzles; emergency undocking) were assessed with five-point Likert scale. A validated 50-item Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure (DREEM) inventory was used by GSRs to assess the educational environment. Mean MCQ scores: (90.6 ± 16.1 PGY1), (80.2 ± 18.1PGY2), (91.7 ± 16.5 PGY3) and (PGY4, 86.8 ± 18.1 PGY5) (ANOVA test; p = 0.885). Hands-on docking time decreased at testing when compared to base line: median 17.5 (range 15-20) min vs. 9.5 (range 8-11). Mean hands-on testing score was 4.75 ± 0.29 PGY1; 5.0 ± 0 PGY2 and PGY3, 4.78 ± 0.13 PGY4, and 4.93 ± 0.1 PGY5 (ANOVA test; p = 0.095). No correlation was found between pre-course MCQ score and hands-on training score (Pearson correlation coefficient = - 0.359; p = 0.066). There was no difference in the hands-on scores stratified by PGY. The overall DREEM score was 167.1 ± 16.9 with CAC = 0.908 (excellent internal consistency). Patient cart training impacted the responsiveness of GSRs with 54% docking time reduction and no differences in hands-on testing scores among PGYs with a highly positive perception.