Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Characteristics and Outcomes in Children and Adolescents With COVID-19 or Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome Admitted to U.S. Icus
OBJECTIVES: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been used successfully to support adults with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-related cardiac or respiratory failure refractory to conventional therapies. Comprehensive reports of children and adolescents with SARS-CoV-2-related ECMO support for conditions, including multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) and acute COVID-19, are needed. DESIGN: Case series of patients from the Overcoming COVID-19 public health surveillance registry. SETTING: Sixty-three hospitals in 32 U.S. states reporting to the registry between March 15, 2020, and December 31, 2021. PATIENTS: Patients less than 21 years admitted to the ICU meeting Centers for Disease Control criteria for MIS-C or acute COVID-19. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The final cohort included 2,733 patients with MIS-C ( n = 1,530; 37 [2.4%] requiring ECMO) or acute COVID-19 ( n = 1,203; 71 [5.9%] requiring ECMO). ECMO patients in both groups were older than those without ECMO support (MIS-C median 15.4 vs 9.9 yr; acute COVID-19 median 15.3 vs 13.6 yr). The body mass index percentile was similar in the MIS-C ECMO versus no ECMO groups (89.9 vs 85.8; p = 0.22) but higher in the COVID-19 ECMO versus no ECMO groups (98.3 vs 96.5; p = 0.03). Patients on ECMO with MIS-C versus COVID-19 were supported more often with venoarterial ECMO (92% vs 41%) for primary cardiac indications (87% vs 23%), had ECMO initiated earlier (median 1 vs 5 d from hospitalization), shorter ECMO courses (median 3.9 vs 14 d), shorter hospital length of stay (median 20 vs 52 d), lower in-hospital mortality (27% vs 37%), and less major morbidity at discharge in survivors (new tracheostomy, oxygen or mechanical ventilation need or neurologic deficit; 0% vs 11%, 0% vs 20%, and 8% vs 15%, respectively). Most patients with MIS-C requiring ECMO support (87%) were admitted during the pre-Delta (variant B.1.617.2) period, while most patients with acute COVID-19 requiring ECMO support (70%) were admitted during the Delta variant period. CONCLUSIONS: ECMO support for SARS-CoV-2-related critical illness was uncommon, but type, initiation, and duration of ECMO use in MIS-C and acute COVID-19 were markedly different. Like pre-pandemic pediatric ECMO cohorts, most patients survived to hospital discharge.
Bembea, M. M., Loftis, L. L., Thiagarajan, R. R., Young, C. C., McCadden, T. P., Newhams, M. M., Kucukak, S., Mack, E. H., Fitzgerald, J. C., Rowan, C. M., Maddux, A. B., Kolmar, A. R., Irby, K., Heidemann, S., Schwartz, S. P., Kong, M., Crandall, H., Havlin, K. M., Singh, A. R., Schuster, J. E., Hall, M. W., Wellnitz, K. A., Maamari, M., Gaspers, M. G., Nofziger, R. A., Lim, P. P., Carroll, R. W., Coronado Munoz, A., Bradford, T. T., Cullimore, M. L., Halasa, N. B., & McLaughlin, G. E. (2023). Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Characteristics and Outcomes in Children and Adolescents With COVID-19 or Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome Admitted to U.S. Icus. https://doi.org/10.1097/PCC.0000000000003212