Present Knowledge on Direct Oral Anticoagulant and Novel Oral Anti Coagulants and Their Specific Antidotes: A Comprehensive Review Article
Thromboembolic diseases are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. For a long time, heparin and Vitamin K antagonist (VKA) drugs were used for treatment and prophylaxis of the thromboembolic diseases. The development of newer direct and novel oral anticoagulant medications (DOACs/NOACs) has changed clinical practice significantly. Lesser monitoring, ease with dosing, less drug interactions have made these drugs useful to the providers and the patients. But these drugs have bleeding as a side effect. There is ongoing research on the specific antidotes of these anticoagulants in case of life-threatening bleeding. Though the use of the DOACs and NOACs have increased, there is still not enough clinical evidence about the specific antidotes of these medications. Unlike heparin or VKA, reversal of life-threatening bleeding in the setting of DOAC use is still a clinical challenge. We need more data on the dose, pharmacokinetics, and clinical efficacy of those antidotes. Authors have reviewed articles on DOACs and their antidotes in Pubmed and also in the clinical trial website. Specific antidotes including Idarucizumab for Dabigatran, Andexanet alfa for factor Xa inhibitors are being used to reverse the actions of the anticoagulants. Ciraparantag is a universal antidote for the DOACs, which is still under investigation. FXaI16L is currently being investigated as a potential universal antidote for multiple anticoagulants, including dabigatran and rivaroxaban. Though mostly safe, the use of DOACs can still carry a risk of severe bleeding in patients. More data on the use of the antidotes is required to reverse the side effect of DOACs if clinically indicated.
Biswas, S., Bahar, Y., Bahar, A. R., Safiriyu, I., Mathai, S. V., Hajra, A., Gupta, R., & Aronow, W. S. (2023). Present Knowledge on Direct Oral Anticoagulant and Novel Oral Anti Coagulants and Their Specific Antidotes: A Comprehensive Review Article. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpcardiol.2022.101483