COVID-19, Heart Failure Hospitalizations, and Outcomes: A Nationwide Analysis
Heart Failure (HF) patients are at a higher risk of adverse events associated with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Large population-based reports of the impact of COVID-19 on patients hospitalized with HF are limited. The National Inpatient Sample database was queried for HF admissions during 2020 in the United States (US), with and without a diagnosis of COVID-19 based on ICD-10-CM U07. Propensity score matching was used to match patients across age, race, sex, and comorbidities. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors of mortality. A weighted total of 1,110,085 hospitalizations for HF were identified of which 7,905 patients (0.71%) had a concomitant diagnosis of COVID-19. After propensity matching, HF patients with COVID-19 had higher rate of in-hospital mortality (8.2% vs 3.7%; odds ratio [OR]: 2.33 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.69, 3.21]; P< 0.001), cardiac arrest (2.9% vs 1.1%, OR 2.21 [95% CI: 1.24,3.93]; P<0.001), and pulmonary embolism (1.0% vs 0.4%; OR 2.68 [95% CI: 1.05, 6.90]; P = 0.0329). During hospitalizations for HF, COVID-19 was also found to be an independent predictor of mortality. Further, increasing age, arrythmias, and chronic kidney disease were independent predictors of mortality in HF patients with COVID-19. COVID-19 is associated with increased in-hospital mortality, longer hospital stays, higher cost of hospitalization and increased risk of adverse outcomes in patients admitted with HF.
Isath, A., Malik, A., Bandyopadhyay, D., Goel, A., Hajra, A., Dhand, A., Lanier, G. M., Fonarow, G. C., Lavie, C. J., & Gass, A. L. (2023). COVID-19, Heart Failure Hospitalizations, and Outcomes: A Nationwide Analysis. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpcardiol.2022.101541