NYMC Faculty Publications

SGLT2 inhibitors in hypertension: Role beyond diabetes and heart failure

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Resident/Fellow, Faculty

Journal Title

Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine

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Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is a pandemic that affects millions of patients worldwide. Diabetes affects multiple organ systems leading to comorbidities including hypertension. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) recently have been approved for the treatment of T2DM and heart failure with reduced and preserved ejection fraction. Retrospective analyses of clinical trials have noted SGLT2 inhibitors to have a promising effect on blood pressure. Moreover, the observed blood pressure reduction is not just an acute effect of treatment initiation but has been shown to have a long-term impact on both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The mechanism of action leading to the blood pressure reduction is still unclear; however, proposed mechanisms are related to the natriuretic effect, modification of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and/or the reduction in the sympathetic nervous system, SGLT2i should be considered as second-line medication in those patients with diabetes or heart disease and concomitant hypertension. This article reviews the pharmacology, side effect profile, and clinical trials surrounding the use of SGLT2i for the treatment of hypertension.