NYMC Faculty Publications


Epidemiology, Prevention, and Assessment of Tardive Dyskinesia and Advances in Treatment

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Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences


Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a disorder characterized by involuntary movements, typically of the orofacial muscles and also of the extremities and other muscle groups. The condition is associated with exposure to dopamine receptor blocking agents, including antipsychotics. Because the indications and off-label uses for these agents have expanded over the last 2 decades, a larger number of patients are receiving antipsychotic medications than in the past. While evidence suggests that patients being treated with second-generation antipsychotics have less risk for developing TD than those treated with first-generation antipsychotics, the decreased risk is not as great as was originally expected. In addition, patients with chronic psychiatric conditions often require long-term use of antipsychotics, putting them at risk for TD. This article addresses the prevalence, risk factors, and prevention of TD; assessment strategies including diagnostic criteria and rating scales; and evidence for TD treatments, including 2 newly approved medications: deutetrabenazine and valbenazine. .