Faculty Publications


Delayed Care and Mortality Among Women and Men with Myocardial Infarction

Document Type


Publication Date

August 2017




Background-Women with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) have higher mortality rates than men. We investigated whether sex-related differences in timely access to care among STEMI patients may be a factor associated with excess risk of early mortality in women. Methods and Results-We identified 6022 STEMI patients who had information on time of symptom onset to time of hospital presentation at 41 hospitals participating in the ISACS-TC (International Survey of Acute Coronary Syndromes in Transitional Countries) registry (NCT01218776) from October 2010 through April 2016. Patients were stratified into time-delay cohorts. We estimated the 30-day risk of all-cause mortality in each cohort. Despite similar delays in seeking care, the overall time from symptom onset to hospital presentation was longer for women than men (median: 270 minutes [range: 130-776] versus 240 minutes [range: 120-600]). After adjustment for baseline variables, female sex was independently associated with greater risk of 30-day mortality (odds ratio: 1.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-1.97). Sex differences in mortality following STEMI were no longer observed for patients having delays from symptom onset to hospital presentation of <= 1 hour (odds ratio: 0.77; 95% confidence interval, 0.29-2.02). Conclusions-Sex difference in mortality following STEMI persists and appears to be driven by prehospital delays in hospital presentation. Women appear to be more vulnerable to prolonged untreated ischemia.