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Gene 33 (Mig6, ERRFI1) is an adaptor protein with multiple cellular functions. We recently linked Gene 33 to the DNA damage response (DDR) induced by hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], but the molecular mechanism remains unknown. Here we show that ectopic expression of Gene 33 triggers DDR in an ATM serine/threonine kinase-dependent fashion and through pathways dependent or not dependent on ABL proto-oncogene 1 non-receptor tyrosine kinase (c-Abl). We observe clear presence of Gene 33 in the nucleus and chromatin fractions of the cell. We also found that the nuclear localization of Gene 33 is regulated by its 14-3-3 binding motif (14-3-3BD) and that the chromatin localization of Gene 33 is partially dependent on its ErbB binding domain (EBD). Our data further indicated that Gene 33 may regulate the targeting of c-Abl to chromatin. Moreover, we observed a clear association of Gene 33 with histone H2AX and that ectopic expression of Gene 33 promotes the interaction between ATM and histone H2AX without triggering DNA damage. In summary, our results reveal nuclear functions of Gene 33 that regulate DDR. The nuclear localization of Gene 33 also provides a spatial explanation on the previously reported regulation of apoptosis by Gene 33 via the c-Abl/p73 pathway. One the basis of these findings and our previous studies, we propose that Gene 33 is a proximal regulator of DDR that promotes DNA repair.

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.