Device-Related Adverse Events During Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy: Review of the Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) Database
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is an established technique for removal of large stones from the upper urinary tract. It is a complex, multistep procedure requiring several classes of instruments that are subject to operator misuse and device malfunction. We report device-related adverse events during PCNL from the MAUDE database using a recently developed standardized classification system. METHODS: The MAUDE database was queried for "percutaneous nephrolithotomy" from 2006 to 2016. The circumstances and patient complications associated with classes of devices used during PCNL were identified. We then utilized a novel MAUDE classification system to categorize clinical events. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify associations between device classes and severe adverse events. RESULTS: A total of 218 device-related events were reported. The most common classes included: lithotripter 53 (24.3%), wires 43 (19.7%), balloon dilators 30 (13.8%) and occlusion balloons 28 (12.8%). Reported patient complications included need for a second procedure 12 (28.6%), bleeding 8 (19.0%), retained fragments 7 (16.7%), prolonged procedure 4 (9.5%), ureteral injury 2 (4.8%) and conversion to an open procedure 3 (7.1%). Using a MAUDE classification system, 176 complications (81%) were Level I (mild/none), 26 (12%) were Level II (moderate), 15 (7%) were Level III (severe) and 1 (0.5%) was Level IV (life threatening). On univariate analysis, balloon dilators had the highest risk of Level II-IV complications compared to the other device classes [OR: 4.33, CI: 1.978-9.493, p<0.001]. The device was evaluated by the manufacturer in 93 (42.7%) cases, with 54.8% of reviewed cases listing the source of malfunction as misuse by the operator. CONCLUSIONS: PCNL is subject to a wide range of device-related adverse events. A MAUDE classification system is useful for standardized, clinically-relevant reporting of events. Our findings highlight the importance of proper surgeon training with devices to maximize efficiency and decrease harm.
Patel, N., Schulman, A., Bloom, J., Uppaluri, N., Phillips, J. L., Konno, S., Choudhury, M., & Eshghi, M. (2017). Device-Related Adverse Events During Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy: Review of the Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) Database. Journal of Endourology, 31 (10), 1007-1011. https://doi.org/10.1089/end.2017.0343