Outcomes in Congenital and Childhood Complete Atrioventricular Block: A Meta-Analysis

Author Type(s)


Document Type


Publication Date


Journal Title

Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology




BACKGROUND: The long-term outcomes of patients with congenital and childhood complete atrioventricular block (CCAVB/CAVB) after pacemaker implantation are unclear.

METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis of all the studies of CCAVB. A systematic search of PubMed and CENTRAL databases from January 1, 1967 to January 31, 2020 was performed. The quality of studies included was critically appraised using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale, and outcome data were analyzed using the restricted maximum likelihood function.

RESULTS: Twenty-nine studies were eligible for analysis, with a total of 1553 patients. The all-cause-mortality was 5.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.5%-9.9%), while pacing-induced cardiomyopathy (PICM) was seen in 3.8% (95% CI: 1.2-7.2). Diagnosis at birth (effect size [ES] [95%CI]: -2.23 [-0.36 to -0.10]; p < .001), presence of congenital heart disease (ES [95%CI]: -0.67 [0.41-0.93]; p < .001), younger age at pacemaker implantation (ES [95%CI]: -0.01 [-0.02 to -0.001]; p = .02), and duration of pacing (ES [95%CI]: -0.03 [-0.05 to -0.003]; p = .03), were associated with an higher mortality on binominal logistic regression. None of the parameters were significant on multivariate analysis.

CONCLUSION: Pooled proportional mortality in patients with CCAVB and CAVB is 5.7% with an infrequent incidence of PICM (3.8%) in the paced patients with AVB suggesting that pacing in these patients is an effective management strategy with a low incidence of long-term side effects. Registry and randomized data can throw additional light regarding the natural history and appropriate management strategy in these patients.