Early Fevers and Elevated Neutrophil-To-Lymphocyte Ratio Are Associated With Repeat Endovascular Interventions for Cerebral Vasospasm in Patients With Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

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Neurocritical Care




BACKGROUND: Patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) may develop refractory arterial cerebral vasospasm requiring multiple endovascular interventions. The aim of our study is to evaluate variables associated with need for repeat endovascular treatments in refractory vasospasm and to identify differences in outcomes following one versus multiple treatments.

METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed patients treated for aSAH between 2017 and 2020 at two tertiary care centers. We included patients who underwent treatment (intraarterial infusion of vasodilatory agents or mechanical angioplasty) for radiographically diagnosed vasospasm in our analysis. Patients were divided into those who underwent single treatment versus those who underwent multiple endovascular treatments for vasospasm.

RESULTS: Of the total 418 patients with aSAH, 151 (45.9%) underwent endovascular intervention for vasospasm. Of 151 patients, 95 (62.9%) underwent a single treatment and 56 (37.1%) underwent two or more treatments. Patients were more likely to undergo multiple endovascular treatments if they had a Hunt-Hess score > 2 (odds ratio [OR] 5.10 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.82-15.84]; p = 0.003), a neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio > 8.0 (OR 3.19 [95% CI 1.40-7.62]; p = 0.028), and more than two fevers within the first 5 days of admission (OR 7.03 [95% CI 2.68-20.94]; p < 0.001). Patients with multiple treatments had poorer outcomes, including increased length of stay, delayed cerebral ischemia, in-hospital complications, and higher modified Rankin scores at discharge.

CONCLUSIONS: A Hunt-Hess score > 2, a neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio > 8.0, and early fevers may be predictive of need for multiple endovascular interventions in refractory cerebral vasospasm after aSAH. These patients have poorer functional outcomes at discharge and higher rates of in-hospital complications.