Implementation and Resource Needs for Long-Acting PrEP in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: a Scoping Review

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Review Article

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Journal of the International AIDS Society


INTRODUCTION: Several low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are preparing to introduce long-acting pre-exposure prophylaxis (LAP). Amid multiple pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) options and constrained funding, decision-makers could benefit from systematic implementation planning and aligned costs. We reviewed national costed implementation plans (CIPs) to describe relevant implementation inputs and activities (domains) for informing the costed rollout of LAP. We assessed how primary costing evidence aligned with those domains.

METHODS: We conducted a rapid review of CIPs for oral PrEP and family planning (FP) to develop a consensus of implementation domains, and a scoping review across nine electronic databases for publications on PrEP costing in LMICs between January 2010 and June 2022. We extracted cost data and assessed alignment with the implementation domains and the Global Health Costing Consortium principles.

RESULTS: We identified 15 implementation domains from four national PrEP plans and FP-CIP template; only six were in all sources. We included 66 full-text manuscripts, 10 reported LAP, 13 (20%) were primary cost studies-representing seven countries, and none of the 13 included LAP. The 13 primary cost studies included PrEP commodities (n = 12), human resources (n = 11), indirect costs (n = 11), other commodities (n = 10), demand creation (n = 9) and counselling (n = 9). Few studies costed integration into non-HIV services (n = 5), above site costs (n = 3), supply chains and logistics (n = 3) or policy and planning (n = 2), and none included the costs of target setting, health information system adaptations or implementation research. Cost units and outcomes were variable (e.g. average per person-year).

DISCUSSION: LAP planning will require updating HIV prevention policies, technical assistance for logistical and clinical support, expanding beyond HIV platforms, setting PrEP achievement targets overall and disaggregated by method, extensive supply chain and logistics planning and support, as well as updating health information systems to monitor multiple PrEP methods with different visit schedules. The 15 implementation domains were variable in reviewed studies. PrEP primary cost and budget data are necessary for new product introduction and should match implementation plans with financing.

CONCLUSIONS: As PrEP services expand to include LAP, decision-makers need a framework, tools and a process to support countries in planning the systematic rollout and costing for LAP.


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