Date of Award


Document Type

Master's Thesis - Open Access

Degree Name

Master of Public Health


Public Health

First Advisor

Michael Shakarjian, Ph.D.

Second Advisor

Michael Chung


Water is an essential component of growth and life; unfortunately, many countries face growing challenges in providing safe water. This has created a need for alternatives in the ways water can be treated, saved, or reused. In this paper, four alternative water supplies are reviewed: desalination, grey water reuse, harvesting of rainwater, and harvesting of stormwater. These alternatives are examined in terms of their advantages and disadvantages, the waste by-products, other pollution that can be produced by them, and how to handle each one. To accomplish this, brief information about each alternative, what technologies are used for water treatment, and the advantages and disadvantages for each technology are provided.