Date of Award


Document Type

Doctoral Dissertation - Open Access

Degree Name

Doctor of Public Health


Public Health

First Advisor

Dr. Adam Block, PhD.

Second Advisor

Dr. Kenneth Knapp, PhD.

Third Advisor

Dr. Gifty Immanuel, MD., MPH, PhD.


Gender-based violence (GBV) is a multifaceted problem. The most rapidly increasing modern form of violence is the intertwined epidemic of ‘Technology Facilitated GBV’ [TF GBV] and sexual violence against women and girls. It was critical to investigate the global impact of this epidemic during COVID-19 since a disproportionate impact of violence was observed among women and girls in low and middle-income countries. A retrospective cross-sectional research design was adopted using linear regression analysis (univariate and multivariate) on SDG 5.2, a set of global indicators, to elicit the socioeconomic determinants of GBV. Phase-I results exposed the top-four socio-economic determinants of GBV: Gender Development Index, Gross National Income, Human Development Index and Gender Inequality Index. Phase-II results indicated that the unethical use of technology was highest among the urban male internet users. The ICT-progress increased the incidence of TF GBV due to unethical use of technology which impacted women, global health and productivity. Phase-III:A country-specific case study on Mexico revealed the efficiency of utilizing an inter-agency approach, advocacy and legislation, to control digital violence and adolescent birth-rates. Phase-IV: Predictive analytics applied on SDG 5.2 led to the development of a GBV prevention business model and TF GBV disruptor strategy. In conclusion, women and girls, the key populations and people living with disabilities, were most disproportionately impacted by TF GBV. Empowering women and girls, enhancing economic autonomy, integration of holistic interagency interventions, mitigation of cybersecurity threats with a sustained monitoring effort to eliminate digital and sexual violence against women and girls, is crucial.


“People and technology are increasingly interlinked, further enabling the very best, as well as the worst, of humanity” (National Cybersecurity Strategy: The White House, 2023).