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The Science Journal of the Lander College of Arts and Sciences

Abstract

The following is the introduction of this article: Coronary arteries disease (CAD) is a leading cause of death in United States and rest of the world. It mostly involves atherogenic formation within the walls of the coronary arteries, which in turn restricts the adequate perfusion to the heart muscle. This leads to myocardial infarction and sudden death. In the past few decades the theories of coronary arteries disease pathogenesis have changed. The facts reveal that the onset of the disease can develop as early as childhood. The degree of the disease gradually progresses in stages and it is regarded as a complex, ongoing inflammatory process that begins with initial endothelial dysfunction. There are multiple risk factors that directly and indirectly impacts the development and progression of CAD such as hypercholesterolemia, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, stress , high fat meals, lack of exercise, alcohol abuse, obesity and recently chronic infections were added to the list as well. Moreover, we realize now that coronary artery disease runs in the family and there are some risk factors that can not be altered or controlled such as age, sex and heredity. We know that the firstdegree relatives of people who suffers from coronary artery disease at the early age are at much greater risk that others. Coronary artery disease is considered to be highly complex heterogeneous disease that results from blended effect of multiple genes. In recent years, researchers have identified the involvement of about 400 genes that might contribute to or to protect against development of disease.(Dzau and Liew 2007). Although, the definite conformation that even half of those is actually involved is still a long way from determination. The bigger question arises from all this information. Can we take an individual genomic profile and translate it into something that’s clinically useful? Rather, than discuss all 400 genes that have been implicated, this paper will focus on several of the best-understood genes in order to find their practical application. Among them are disease-causing genes, susceptibility genes and disease-linked genes. It is important to keep in mind that this situation is rapidly changing and hopefully in future genetic approaches will shape the practice of medicine in fundamental ways.

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