Smoking during pregnancy is accepted as the most significant avoidable risk factor for an unsuccessful pregnancy result. Smoking is linked with fetal growth restriction, and increasing evidence also suggests that smoking can cause stillbirth, preterm birth, placental abruption, and possibly sudden infant death syndrome. Smoking during pregnancy is also associated with enhanced risks of spontaneous abortions, ectopic pregnancies, and placenta previa, and it might increase risks of behavioral disorders in childhood. Studies have shown with randomized controlled trials, that smoking intervention during pregnancy has had limited success. Smoking during pregnancy continues to be an important risk factor for maternal and fetal outcomes during pregnancy.
Cohen, M. (2011). The Effects Of Smoking On Pregnant Women. The Science Journal of the Lander College of Arts and Sciences, 4 (2). Retrieved from https://touroscholar.touro.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1169&context=sjlcas