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Despite advances in resuscitation science and public health, out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OOHCA) has an average survival rate of only 12% nationwide, compared to 24.8% of patients who suffer from cardiac arrest while in hospital. Additionally, gender is an important element of human health, and there is a clear pattern for gender-specific survivability in cardiac arrest. This study examined differences in presentations, treatment, management, and outcomes.


The primary focus of this study was to shed light on differences in presentations, treatments, and outcomes between men and women suffering from an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and the accompanying contributing factors.


All emergency medical services-related data, including age, date, initial rhythm, chemical interventions (i.e., epinephrine, dextrose), blood glucose levels, defibrillations, endotracheal tube (ETT) attempts, final airway management, achievement of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), and the conclusion of the case up to the emergency department, were recorded using a standardized emergency medical services (EMS) charting record by the highest-ranking EMS provider on the ambulance. The reports were retrospectively collected and analyzed.


The study examined demographics, treatments rendered, and outcomes in OOHCA cases that occurred in a major United States (US) city in 2016. Several significant differences in care were noted between men and women. In general, women received less respiratory, chemical, and electrical interventions than men; however, statistically significant differences were only observed in the number of attempts of endotracheal intubations, number of doses of epinephrine per encounter, and number of defibrillations per encounter. In spite of generally receiving less care, women appeared to respond more favorably to cardiac arrest interventions, as demonstrated by higher rates of ROSC. Despite this, women were also found to be eight years older at the time of arrest. Future studies are needed to determine causality in discrepancies between the genders in addition to investigating differences in treatment in other areas of the United States.

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Originally published in Cureus, 10(8) [Article e3233]. The original material can be found here.

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Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.



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