Levetiracetam is a widely used, effective and usually well-tolerated anti-epileptic medicine. It is mostly excreted by kidneys and requires dose adjustment according to the glomerular filtration rate. Very few case reports have been published in the literature about levetiracetam causing acute kidney injury (AKI). We present a case of a 26-year-old male with a seizure disorder on levetiracetam, presented with status epilepticus requiring intubation for airway protection. He received 4 g of intravenous levetiracetam as a loading dose and continued with a maintenance dose of 750 mg intravenous every 12 hours. He had signs of AKI on day two and creatinine eventually reached a maximum level of 12.2 mg/dL. His kidney function improved to his new baseline in a period of 30 days without requiring renal replacement therapy. He did not have significant rhabdomyolysis and his kidney function started improving right after his anti-epileptic therapy was switched to valproic acid pointing towards levetiracetam as the primary cause of kidney injury. Clinicians should be aware that levetiracetam can cause AKI on patients with a seizure disorder, especially when administered in high doses. Kidney function should be monitored closely and patients should be treated aggressively with intravenous fluids when they have any signs of rhabdomyolysis to prevent further kidney damage.
Erdinc, B., Ghanta, S., Andreev, A., Elkholy, K., & Sahni, S. (2020). Acute Kidney Injury Caused by Levetiracetam in a Patient With Status Epilepticus. Cureus, 12 (6), 8814. https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.8814
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