Publication Date


Document Type



Master of Arts in Education (MA)

MA Concentration

Teaching and Learning


Jim O'Connor, Happy Johnson


The purpose of this study was to examine the affects of an errorless instructional strategy called Constant Time Delay on first grade English Language Learner students. The researcher's interests were in the overall effectiveness of the Constant Time Delay instructional strategy to increase the acquisition of High Frequency Sight Words to a group of low scoring Basic Phonics Skills Test II (BPST II) students in a self contained impoverished elementary school classroom. Basic Phonics Skills Test II (BPST II) was developed by John Shefelbine to assess students' knowledge of phonics skills beginning and High Frequency Sight Words.

This study was limited to students in a self contained classroom, ten minute time limitations, and limited to three times a week of Constant Time Delay intervention. The study concentrated its efforts on teaching first grade High Frequency Sight Words, with the traditional 3 by 5 index cards and a 3 to 5 minute wait for the correct response from student. If the student didn't respond to the stimuli, the correct answer was given.