This paper extracts and translates for application findings emerging from the research on keyword advertising. Five conclusions emerge. First, developing a comprehensive collection of keywords for a new product or service is useful for all businesses, whether or not keyword ads will ultimately be bought. Second, analyzing keyword searches identifies the existence and trend of demand from user search frequency for all businesses. Third, keyword advertising is too expensive for many products and some services, and most lean start-ups. Fourth, there are effective alternates to keyword advertising. Fifth, the skills for keyword advertising are readily learnable: an advertising firm may not be needed.
Sullivan, A. P., Sullivan, G. W., & Sullivan, J. A. (2016). Translating the research: Keyword advertising for lean start-ups. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 7(8).