Kidney Dysfunction in the Low Birth Weight Murine Adult: Implications of Oxidative Stress
Maternal undernutrition during pregnancy leads to low birth weight (LBW) neonates that have a reduced kidney nephron endowment and higher morbidity as adults. Using a severe combined caloric and protein restricted mouse model of MUN to generate LBW mice, we examined the progression of renal insufficiency in LBW adults. Through 6 months of age, LBW males experienced greater albuminuria (ELISA analysis), a more rapid onset of glomerular hypertrophy and a worse survival rate than LBW females. In contrast, both genders experienced a comparable progressive decline in renal vascular density (immunofluorescence analysis), renal blood flow (Laser-Doppler flowmetry analysis), glomerular filtration rate (FITC-sinistrin clearance analysis), and a progressive increase in systemic blood pressure (measured via tail-cuff method). Isolated aortas from both LBW genders demonstrated reduced vasodilation in response to acetylcholine, indicative of reduced nitric oxide bioavailability and endothelial dysfunction. ELISA and immunofluorescence analysis revealed a significant increase of circulating reactive oxygen species and NADPH oxidase type 4 (NOX4) expression in both LBW genders, although these increases were more pronounced in males. Although more effective in males, chronic tempol treatment did improve all observed pathologies in both LBW genders. Chronic NOX4 inhibition with GKT137831 was more effective than tempol in preventing pathologies in LBW males. In conclusion, despite some minor differences, LBW female and male adults that have a reduced nephron endowment experience comparable progressive renal and vascular dysfunction that is associated with increased oxidative stress and subsequent endothelial dysfunction. Tempol treatment and/or NOX4 inhibition attenuates renal and vascular dysfunction in LBW adults.
Abdulmahdi, W., Rabadi, M., Jules, E., Marghani, Y., Leung, J., Zhang, F., Siani, A., Siskind, T., Chowdhury, N., & Ratliff, B. (2018). Kidney Dysfunction in the Low Birth Weight Murine Adult: Implications of Oxidative Stress. American Journal of Physiology.Renal Physiology, 315 (3), F583-F594. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajprenal.00164.2018