NYMC Faculty Publications

Conquering the Pneumococcal Nemesis with Oral Antibiotics

Journal Title

Journal Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives

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Document Type

Case Report

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Introduction: Streptococcus pneumoniae endocarditis (SPE) occurs in Case: A 58-year-old African American male who used alcohol and intravenous (IV) drugs presented with confusion, fever, and hemoptysis. He had coarse rhonchi with a grade 2/5 holosystolic apical murmur. CT chest showed diffuse bilateral infiltrates. Blood cultures were positive for pansensitive Streptococcus pneumoniae. Echocardiogram demonstrated large vegetations on the anterior and posterior leaflets of the mitral valve with flail leaflet and severe eccentric mitral regurgitation. Patient was started on IV ceftriaxone, but after 3 weeks of therapy, he wished to leave against medical advice. He was discharged on combination oral therapy with successful resolution of SPE on follow-up. Discussion: Invasive pneumococcus is highly virulent causing irreversible valvular destruction or death. IV beta-lactams are first-line treatment, but there are currently no guideline-recommended alternatives for oral therapy. Recent data suggest partial oral therapy may be noninferior to IV only therapy. Conclusion: Switching to oral combination antibiotics after at least 2 weeks of IV therapy is an acceptable alternative to treat SPE.