BACKGROUND: Prior studies have found that smokers undergoing thrombolytic therapy for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction have lower in-hospital mortality than nonsmokers, a phenomenon called the "smoker's paradox." Evidence, however, has been conflicting regarding whether this paradoxical association persists in the era of primary percutaneous coronary intervention.
METHODS AND RESULTS: We used the 2003-2012 National Inpatient Sample databases to identify all patients aged ≥18 years who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compare in-hospital mortality between smokers (current and former) and nonsmokers. Of the 985 174 patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention, 438 954 (44.6%) were smokers. Smokers were younger, were more often men, and were less likely to have traditional vascular risk factors than nonsmokers. Smokers had lower observed in-hospital mortality compared with nonsmokers (2.0% versus 5.9%; unadjusted odds ratio 0.32, 95% CI 0.31-0.33, P
CONCLUSIONS: In this nationwide cohort of patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, we observed significantly lower risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality in smokers, suggesting that the smoker's paradox also applies to ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention.
Gupta, T., Kolte, D., Khera, S., Harikrishnan, P., Mujib, M., Aronow, W. S., et al. (2016). Smoker's paradox in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Journal of the American Heart Association, 5(4), e003370. doi:10.1161/JAHA.116.003370