Cardiovascular Manifestations of Systemic Sclerosis: An Overview of Pathophysiology, Screening Modalities, and Treatment Options
Systemic sclerosis, previously known as scleroderma, is a heterogeneous, systemic disease that is defined by its 3 pathological hallmarks: the production of autoantibodies, small vessel vasculopathy, and fibroblast dysfunction, leading to an increased deposition of extracellular matrix. We conducted a review of the available literature that covers the cardiovascular manifestations of SSc: electrical conduction abnormalities, pulmonary hypertension, pericardial disease, and atherosclerosis. Within each major category, we will discuss the definition, diagnostics, and available treatment options. Increased mortality from cardiovascular complications necessitates early screening and management. Annual screening with noninvasive modalities is encouraged. The current management of each complication generally follows the management algorithms of patients regardless of SSc status and is dependent on the severity of the patient's clinical presentation.
Lee, K., Manuntag, L. J., Kifayat, A., Manuntag, S. E., Sperber, K., Ash, J. Y., Frishman, W. H., & Wasserman, A. (2023). Cardiovascular Manifestations of Systemic Sclerosis: An Overview of Pathophysiology, Screening Modalities, and Treatment Options. https://doi.org/10.1097/CRD.0000000000000420