G6PD Orchestrates Genome-Wide DNA Methylation and Gene Expression in the Vascular Wall
International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Recent advances have revealed the importance of epigenetic modifications to gene regulation and transcriptional activity. DNA methylation, a determinant of genetic imprinting and the de novo silencing of genes genome-wide, is known to be controlled by DNA methyltransferases (DNMT) and demethylases (TET) under disease conditions. However, the mechanism(s)/factor(s) influencing the expression and activity of epigenetic writers and erasers, and thus DNA methylation, in healthy vascular tissue is incompletely understood. Based on our recent studies, we hypothesized that glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a modifier of DNMT and TET expression and activity and an enabler of gene expression. In the aorta of CRISPR-edited rats with the Mediterranean G6PD variant, we determined DNA methylation by whole-genome bisulfite sequencing, gene expression by RNA sequencing, and large artery stiffness by echocardiography. Here, we documented higher expression of , , and in aortas from Mediterranean G6PD variant (a loss-of-function single nucleotide polymorphism) rats than their wild-type littermates. Concomitantly, we identified 17,618 differentially methylated loci genome-wide (5787 hypermethylated loci, including down-regulated genes encoding inflammation- and vasoconstriction-causing proteins, and 11,827 hypomethylated loci, including up-regulated genes encoding smooth muscle cell differentiation- and fatty acid metabolism-promoting proteins) in aortas from G6PD as compared to wild-type rats. Our results demonstrated that nitric oxide, which is generated in a G6PD-derived NADPH-dependent manner, increases TET and decreases DNMT activity. Further, we observed less large artery (aorta) stiffness in G6PD as compared to wild-type rats. These results establish a noncanonical function of the wild-type G6PD and G6PD variant in the regulation of DNA methylation and gene expression in healthy vascular tissue and reveal that the G6PD variant contributes to reducing large artery stiffness.
Signoretti, C., & Gupte, S. A. (2023). G6PD Orchestrates Genome-Wide DNA Methylation and Gene Expression in the Vascular Wall. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 24 (23). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms242316727