MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, noncoding RNAs involved in the regulation of several processes associated with inflammatory diseases and infection. Bacterial infection modulates miRNA expression to subvert any innate immune response. In this study we analyzed, using microarray analysis, the bacterial modulation of miRNAs in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) in which activity was induced by infection with Porphyromonas gingivalis The expression of several miRNAs was modulated 3 h postinfection (at a multiplicity of infection of 25). A bioinformatic analysis was performed to further identify pathways related to the innate immune host response under the influence of selected miRNAs. To assess the effects of the miRNAs identified on cytokine secretion (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-alpha] and interleukin-10 [IL-10]), BMMs were transfected with selected miRNA mimics and inhibitors. Transfection with mmu-miR-155 and mmu-miR-2137 did not modify TNF-alpha secretion, while their inhibitors increased it. Inhibitors of mmu-miR-2137 and mmu-miR-7674 increased the secretion of the anti-inflammatory factor IL-10. In P. gingivalis-infected BMMs, mmu-miR-155-5p significantly decreased TNF-alpha secretion while inhibitor of mmu-miR-2137 increased IL-10 secretion. In vivo, in a mouse model of P. gingivalis-induced calvarial bone resorption, injection of mmu-miR-155-5p or anti-mmu-miR-2137 reduced the size of the lesion significantly. Furthermore, anti-mmu-miR-2137 significantly reduced inflammatory cell infiltration, osteoclast activity, and bone loss. Bioinformatic analysis demonstrated that pathways related to cytokine- and chemokine-related pathways but also osteoclast differentiation may be involved in the effects observed. This study contributes further to our understanding of P. gingivalis-induced modulation of miRNAs and their physiological effects. It highlights the potential therapeutic merits of targeting mmu-miR-155-5p and mmu-miR-2137 to control inflammation induced by P. gingivalis infection.
Huck, O., Al-Hashemi, J., Poidevin, L., Poch, O., Davideau, J., Tenenbaum, H., & Amar, S. (2017). Identification and Characterization of MicroRNA Differentially Expressed in Macrophages Exposed to Porphyromonas Gingivalis Infection. Infection and Immunity, 85 (3), e00771-16. https://doi.org/10.1128/IAI.00771